Clinical Psychologists

  • work with mentally/emotionally/behaviorally disturbed clients/patients (severe mental illness)
  • can be found in independent/group practices, mental health providers, hospitals/clinics, community mental health sites, or college/university settings
  • offer services including diagnostic tests, individual/marital/family/group therapy, designing and implementing behavior modification programs, and teaching and researching at colleges/universities
  • may focus exclusively on particular problems/issues (such as phobias or depression) or on particular populations (such as the elderly or adolescents)
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within a psychology department
  • the Psy.D. is appropriate for those interested in practice only

Counseling Psychologists

  • work with the worried and their adjustment to everyday living issues
  • can be found in counseling centers, hospitals, and private practice
  • provide individual, marital, family, or group therapy
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within an education department
  • the Psy.D. is appropriate for those interested in practice only

School Psychologists

  • work in schools (elementary and secondary) and school district offices
  • focus on identifying, diagnosing, and resolving learning and behavioral problems
  • work with teachers and parents to counter substance abuse, improve teaching and learning strategies, and provide services to students with disabilities
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within an education department

Educational Psychologists

  • investigate how effective teaching and learning take place, taking into consideration factors such as individual abilities, motivation, and the role of diversity in influencing the classroom environment
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within an education department

Industrial-Organizational Psychologists

  • apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace
  • focus on improving productivity and work-life quality, research management and marketing problems, involved in applicant screening, training and development, counseling, and organizational development
  • frequently serve as outside consultants brought in to deal with particular issues/problems
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within a psychology department

Developmental Psychologists

  • study human development across the physiological, cognitive, social and emotional domains throughout the lifespan
  • pursue subspecialties including: infant-child development, adolescent development, and gerontology
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within a psychology department

Cognitive Psychologists

  • focus on human cognition, including human memory, attention, psycholinguistics, perception, sensation, and higher-order processes
  • often gain expertise in experimental methods and quantitative analysis
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within a psychology department

Social Psychologists

  • study human behavior as it is shaped and influenced by relationships with other people and the environment
  • prominent areas include: group behavior, leadership, interpersonal relationships, attitudes, aggression, and prejudice
  • work in applied (organizational and community) and academic settings
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within a psychology department

Quantitative Psychologists

  • study statistical models and techniques as they apply to psychology and the understanding of human behavior
  • work in applied, academic, and research settings providing technical and statistical input to the measurement, quantification, and analysis of human behavior; also develop mathematical models for psychological tests
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within a psychology department

Forensic Psychologists

  • apply psychological principles to legal issues
  • work in areas such as child custody evaluations, mental competence issues, child neglect and abuse issues, and jury selection questions
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within a psychology department (some programs provide both legal and psychological training)
  • Governing association: American Board of Forensic Psychology

Health Psychologists

  • examine the relationship between biological, social, and psychological factors and health and illness
  • focus on pain management, why certain people do not adhere to their treatment plans, what social and psychological factors are related to cancer survival, and developing health care strategies that foster emotional and physical well-being
  • work in private practices, academic settings, and hospital settings
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within a psychology department

Sports Psychologists

  • work with athletes, coaches, and educational institutions
  • focus on improving concentration and reducing the effects of stress, improving motivation, assisting athletes in dealing with fear and anxiety
  • also focus on examining how sports influence character and the development of ethics and moral principles
  • Ph.D. training typically occurs within a psychology department